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京津冀地区极端温度事件及其成因分析

发表时间:2015-06-30  浏览量:1433  下载量:511
全部作者: 陈方远,孙卫国,张雯淇
作者单位: 南京信息工程大学应用气象学院
摘 要: 根据京津冀地区23个气象站点1960年至2013年逐日气温观测资料和美国国家环境预报中心(National Centers for Environmental Prediction,NCEP)再分析资料,采用常规统计、小波变换等方法,分析京津冀地区极端温度事件的变化特征及其形成原因。结果表明:近54年来,京津冀地区年冷夜日数(TN10)逐渐减少,年冷昼日数(TX10)无明显变化;年暖夜日数(TN90)呈上升趋势,大部分地区年暖昼日数(TX90)亦表现为上升趋势。京津冀地区极端高温事件出现频次增加而极端低温事件出现频次减少,且极端低温事件的增加趋势比极端高温事件的减少趋势更显著。京津冀地区极端低温事件存在2~4a和16a左右的周期性变化,极端高温事件的变化表现为2~4a,6~8a年际尺度和16a左右的年代际尺度周期。分析认为,京津冀地区极端温度事件的发生与中高纬度地区大气环流系统的变化密切相关。当我国北方受冷低压系统控制、低压槽槽后西北气流强盛时,极地冷空气顺势南下,有利于京津冀地区极端低温事件的形成,极端高温事件很少发生;相反,当我国北方受暖高压系统控制时,高压脊的存在阻断了极地冷空气的输送,京津冀地区易发生极端高温事件,极端低温事件难以形成。
关 键 词: 大气科学;京津冀地区;极端温度;时空变化;大气环流
Title: Analysis of extreme temperature events and its causes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
Author: CHEN Fangyuan,SUN Weiguo,ZHANG Wenqi
Organization: School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
Abstract: Based on the daily temperature data collected from 23 meteorological stations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data during 1960 to 2013, the variations of extreme temperature of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its relationships with the atmospheric circulation were analyzed using the methods of conventional statistics and wavelet analysis. The results show that in past 54 years, the TN10 days show a decrease trend but the TX10 days had no significant trends; The TN90 days show increasing trend and TX90 days are increased in most parts of the region. The frequency of extreme high temperature increased and the frequency of extreme low temperature decreased. The trend of extreme low temperature changed faster than that of extreme high temperature. The events of extreme low temperature appear at the periods of 2-4 years and 16 years and the events of extreme high temperature appear at the periods of 2-4 years, 6-8 years and 16 years. Analysis makes it known that the adjustment of atmospheric circulation on middle and high latitudes has a significant effect on the change of extreme temperature of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. When the North China is in the control of cold low pressure of atmosphere, trough of the low pressure brought the strong cold northwest airflow to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is conductive to the formation of extreme low temperature events in the region and extreme high temperature evens is difficult to happen. Otherwise, when the North China is in the control of warm high pressure of atmosphere, the frequency of extreme high temperature events would increase and extreme low temperature is difficult to form in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region due to the ridge of warm high atmosphere cut down the cold airflow from the Arctic polar.
Key words: atmospheric sciences; Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; extreme temperature; spatial and temporal variation; atmospheric circulation
发表期数: 2015年6月第12期
引用格式: 陈方远,孙卫国,张雯淇. 京津冀地区极端温度事件及其成因分析[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2015,8(12):1313-1323.
 
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