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不同去根处理对夏玉米根系形态、干物质积累和产量的影响

发表时间:2016-11-15  浏览量:1590  下载量:331
全部作者: 蒋 迁,李 磊,陈明飞,万菁婧,张凤路,吴瑞娟
作者单位: 河北农业大学农学院,河北省作物生长调控实验室
摘 要: 为探明密植高产玉米群体是否存在根系冗余,于2014年至2015年在河北农业大学辛集试验站进行了田间试验。以玉米杂交种郑单958为材料,比较研究了在75 000株/hm2的密度条件下,分别于大喇叭口期去根和吐丝期去根处理对植株根系形态、干物质积累及产量性状的影响。结果表明:与不去根处理相比,吐丝期去根处理的植株穗粒数、千粒重和产量分别提高了8.7%、4.74%和1.98%,而大喇叭口期去根处理的植株分别降低了16.5%、10.29%和2.74%. 随着生育进程的推进,各处理的植株地上部分总干物重和分配至果穗中的干物质比例不断增加,其中吐丝期去根处理的总干物重和果穗干物质分配比例最高,较对照分别增加了0.72%和4.96%. 两种去根处理显著增加了0~10 cm土层内的根系长度,尤其增加了0.5~1.0 mm毛细根的数量,利于对耕层水分和营养的吸收。大喇叭口期去根处理增加了各土层内的根系表面积和根体积,吐丝期去根处理增加了0~10 cm土层内的根系表面积和根体积。研究认为,密植高产玉米群体存在根系冗余,在玉米吐丝期适当去根处理对玉米产量的提高具有促进作用。
关 键 词: 作物生理学;夏玉米;根系冗余;去根;根系形态;干物质积累
Title: Effects of different root-cutting treatments on root morphology, dry matter accumulation and yield of summer maize
Author: JIANG Qian, LI Lei, CHEN Mingfei, WAN Jingjing, ZHANG Fenglu, WU Ruijuan
Organization: Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University
Abstract: In order to make clear if root redundancy is existing in high density and high yield maize population, field experiment was conducted at Xinji experimental station of Hebei Agricultural University during 2014-2015. The effects of different root-cutting treatments on root morphology, dry matter accumulation and partitioning, and grain yield were studied using maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 as material under planting density of 75 000 plants/hm2 in the field. The treatment was done in large bell shaped stage (DR) and silking stage (TR), respectively. The results showed that compared with CK treatment, the grain number, 1 000-grain weight and yield of TR treatment could be increased by 8.7%, 4.74% and 1.98%, respectively, while for DR treatment they could be reduced by 16.5%, 10.29% and 2.74%, respectively. With the advance of growth, the whole plant dry matter weight above ground and partitioning to ears were gradually increased, and TR treatment were 0.72% and 4.96% higher than that of CK. The root length in 0-10 cm soil layer, especially the roothair length between 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter which is conducive to absorb water and nutrients was increased. The root surface area and volume in each soil layer were significantly increased by DR treatment, while for TR treatment the increase was only in 0-10 cm soil layer. It can be deduced from the study that root redundancy is existed and maize yield could be improved by properly root cutting at silking stage for high planting density and high yield maize population.
Key words: crop physiology; summer maize; root redundancy; root-cutting; root morphology; dry matter accumulation
发表期数: 2016年11月第21期
引用格式: 蒋 迁,李 磊,陈明飞,等. 不同去根处理对夏玉米根系形态、干物质积累和产量的影响[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2016,9(21):22192225.
 
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