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不同覆盖方式下春玉米产量及水分利用效果

发表时间:2018-02-11  浏览量:221  下载量:84
全部作者: 高晓杰,杜雄,崔彦宏,党红凯
作者单位: 河北农业大学农学院,河北省作物生长调控重点实验室;河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所
摘 要: 针对河北平原地下水压采区水资源匮乏和作物非生育期农田无效耗水的现实问题,采用大田试验方法,以常规生产为对照(CK)研究了农田秋季进行不同方式的覆盖对春玉米产量及水分利用效果的影响。结果表明:土下地膜覆盖增产效果明显,与露地常规(CK)相比2 个生长季土下无孔膜覆盖(no perforated film,NPF)增产9.50%~21.25%,孔膜覆盖(performated film,PF)增产2.93%~11.36%,而秸秆覆盖(straw mulching, SM)较露地常规(CK)减产3.01%~11.53%. 秋季土下地膜覆盖有效抑制了周年尤其是非生长季的土壤水分蒸发,提高了生长季土壤贮水量和水分利用效率。两个生长季无孔膜(NPF)、孔膜(PF)和秸秆覆盖(SM)生育期水分利用效率较露地常规(CK)分别提高26.89%~37.12%、20.92%~21.90%和4.35%~6.59%,周年水分利用效率分别提高28.92%~54.66%、29.42%~37.40%和9.99%~18.62%. 无孔膜(NPF)在产量及水分利用效率方面表现最好。秋季实施土下地膜覆盖可作为河北平原地下水压采区春播玉米高效用水、减少无效耗水的一种新型栽培方法。
关 键 词: 农艺学;秋季覆盖;春玉米;产量;水分利用效率
Title: Grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize under different mulching types
Author: GAO Xiaojie, DU Xiong, CUI Yanhong, DANG Hongkai
Organization: Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei, College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University; Institute of Dryland Farming, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Abstract: To relieve the problems that the water resource is extremely scarce in groundwater limit-extracting area and the consumption of water in non-growing period is useless, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different mulching modes on spring maize yield and the water use efficiency (WUE) with the conventional practice as control (CK). The results during the two years showed that, compared to the CK, soil-coated no perforated film (NPF) and perforated film (PF) mulching increased grain yield by 9.50%-21.25% and 2.93%-11.36%, respectively. Nevertheless, straw mulching (SM) resulted in a yield reduction by 3.01%-11.53% compared to the CK. The soil-coated plastic-film mulching restrained the annual soil water evaporation, especially during the non-growing season, i.e. the gap between the previous maize harvest and the spring maize sowing in the following year, and increased the soil water storage and WUE in growing season. In the two years, WUE of growing season under the NPF, PF and SM increased by 26.89%-37.12% 20.92%-21.90% and 4.35%-6.59%, respectively. And the annual WUE under the three mulching modes increased by 28.92%-54.66%, 29.42%-37.40% and 9.99%-18.62%, respectively, compared to the CK. The NPF mulching effects on grain yield and WUE were the best among all the mulching treatments. Thus, the annual soil-coated plastic-film mulching which was conducted in the previous autumn should be regarded as an effective way to reduce the groundwater extraction and useless water consumption for spring maize production in the groundwater limit-extracting area of Hebei province.
Key words: agronomy; soil-coated plastic-film mulching in autumn; spring maize; yield; water use efficiency
发表期数: 2018年2月第3期
引用格式: 高晓杰,杜雄,崔彦宏,等. 不同覆盖方式下春玉米产量及水分利用效果[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2018,11(3):217-227.
 
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