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基于卢瑟福原子模型的氦原子寿命研究

发表时间:2021-12-31  浏览量:149  下载量:20
全部作者: 张波,霍春光,景钰茸,刘畅,代巍
作者单位: 辽宁工程技术大学电子与信息工程学院
摘 要: 卢瑟福的原子模型提出了以核为中心的概念,很好地解释了α粒子散射实验。本文基于卢瑟福原子模型对氦原子寿命进行研究。通过对卢瑟福原子模型下的氦原子空间结构进行分析,利用拉莫尔公式对基态氦原子寿命进行了详细的推导与计算,并对计算过程中的误差进行了分析,得出在卢瑟福原子模型下基态氦原子的寿命约为1.7 ps,其值远小于人类所能感知的时间。同时对比了实际状态与原子消逝状态过程中原子内部电子的运行轨道、单个电子的能量和辐射功率的变化,证明卢瑟福原子模型不仅不能解释单电子的氢原子,同样也不能解释多电子的氦原子,使用卢瑟福原子模型解释原子空间结构仍存在局限性。
关 键 词: 原子核物理学;卢瑟福原子模型的局限性;基态能量;氦原子寿命
Title: Study on lifetime of helium atom based on Rutherford’s atomic model
Author: ZHANG Bo, HUO Chunguang, JING Yurong, LIU Chang, DAI Wei
Organization: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Liaoning Technical University
Abstract: The core centered concept is proposed in Rutherford’s atomic model, which well explains the α particle scattering experiment. In this paper, the lifetime of helium atom was studied based on Rutherford’s atomic model. By analyzing the spatial structure of helium atom under Rutherford’s atomic model, the lifetime of ground state helium atom was deduced and calculated in detail by using Lamore formula, and the error in the calculation process was analyzed. It is obtained that the lifetime of ground state helium atom in Rutherford’s atomic model is about 1.7 ps, which is much less than the time that human can perceive. At the same time, by comparing the changes of the orbit of electrons in an atom, the energy and radiation power of a single electron between the actual state and the vanishing state of the atom, it was proved that Rutherford’s atomic model could not explain either single electron hydrogen atom or multi electron helium atom. There are still limitations in using Rutherford’s atomic model to explain atomic space structure.
Key words: nuclear physics; limitations of Rutherford’s atomic model; ground-state energy; lifetime of helium atom
发表期数: 2021年12月第4期
引用格式: 张波,霍春光,景钰茸,等. 基于卢瑟福原子模型的氦原子寿命研究[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2021,14(4):498-503.
 
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