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节水灌溉对冬小麦/夏玉米周年两熟作物光合和细胞保护参数及产量性状的影响

发表时间:2023-09-27  浏览量:110  下载量:16
全部作者: 王子怡,李向强,张佳祺,肖凯
作者单位: 河北农业大学农学院
摘 要: 改善河北平原区节水栽培冬小麦/夏玉米周年两熟作物生产能力对于促进该生态区水资源可持续利用和保障我国粮食安全具有重要实践意义。本研究在前期工作基础上,对节水灌溉处理下小麦和玉米群体物质生产、光合特性、细胞保护系统特征和产量进行了研究。与生产通常采用的灌溉对照相比,小麦节水处理T1(灌溉底墒水和拔节水,节水44.4%)和玉米节水处理T2(灌溉蒙头水和吐丝水,节水42.1%)生育后期群体干物质量、光合参数和细胞保护酶活性均表现不同程度下降。此外,成熟期T1小麦穗数、穗粒数、千粒重、产量以及T2玉米穗粒数、千粒重和产量较对照(CK)也呈不同程度降低(降幅1.69%~9.21%)。与CK相比,T3处理下,小麦群体干物质量、光合参数、细胞保护系统参数和产量性状表现与T1相似,玉米上述性状表现与T2相似。但与CK相比,T1和T2处理生育期间耗水量减少(小麦减幅20.54%,玉米减幅12.73%),植株水分利用效率显著提高(增幅5.37%~8.40%)。表明节水灌溉处理下,小麦和玉米通过维持生育后期良好光合和细胞保护系统功能,改善植株群个体发育和干物质生产能力,实现周年小麦玉米两熟生产下较高产量水平。
关 键 词: 农艺学;冬小麦/夏玉米周年两熟;节水灌溉;光合参数;细胞保护系统;产量性状
Title: Effects of water-saving irrigation on photosynthetic and cell protection system parameters and yield traits of winter wheat/summer maize double cropping crops
Author: WANG Ziyi, LI Xiangqiang, ZHANG Jiaqi, XIAO Kai
Organization: College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University
Abstract: Improving the capacity of water-saving cultivated winter wheat/summer maize annual double crops in the Hebei plain area is critical for promoting the sustainable use of water resources in this ecological zone and ensuring China's food security. This study investigated the material production, photosynthetic characteristics, cell protection system characteristics, and yield of wheat and maize populations under water-saving irrigation treatments based on previous work. In the late reproductive stage, the wheat water-saving treatment T1 (44.4% water-saving by irrigating bottom moisture water and plucking water) and maize water-saving treatment T2 (42.1% water-saving by irrigating montane and spatula water) showed varying degrees of decreases in population dry matter quality, photosynthetic parameters, and cytoprotective enzyme activities when compared to the irrigation control. Furthermore, compared to CK, the number of ears, kernels per spike, thousand-grain weight, and yield of T1 wheat and the number of ears, kernels per spike, thousand-grain weight, and yield of T2 maize at maturity showed varying degrees of reduction (1.69%-9.21%). Under T3 treatment, dry matter mass, photosynthetic parameters, cell protection system parameters, and yield traits performed similarly to T1, while those of maize population were similar to T2. However, compared to CK, the T1 and T2 treatments reduced water consumption during the reproductive period (20.54% for wheat and 12.73% for maize) while increasing plant water use efficiency (5.37%-8.40% increase). It was discovered that by maintaining good photosynthetic and cell protection system functions in the late reproductive period, wheat and maize improved individual plant population development and dry matter production capacity under water-saving irrigation treatments and achieved higher yield levels under annual wheat and maize dual maturity production.
Key words: agronomy; winter wheat/summer maize annual two crops; water-saving irrigation; photosynthetic parameter; cellular protection system; yield traits
发表期数: 2023年9月第3期
引用格式: 王子怡,李向强,张佳祺,等. 节水灌溉对冬小麦/夏玉米周年两熟作物光合和细胞保护参数及产量性状的影响[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2023,16(3):343-354.
 
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