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锗的赋存特征及提取技术

发表时间:2009-11-15  浏览量:1237  下载量:639
全部作者: 齐福辉,曾凡桂,孙蓓蕾,李美芬
作者单位: 太原理工大学地球科学与工程系;内蒙古煤田地质局
摘 要: 锗是一种稀散元素,在地壳中的含量较低。由于地球化学环境的不同,锗会表现出亲石、亲铁、亲硫和亲有机质等多重性质。锗主要赋存于硅酸盐矿床、硫化物矿床和煤中,在部分斑岩和碳酸盐中也发现有锗的存在,且具有工业开发的价值。在硅酸盐矿床中,锗以类质同象赋存于其中。在硫化物中锗除了以类质同象进入其晶格外,还可以形成GeS2-3及GeS4-4等形式的硫锗酸根进入含锗硫酸盐类矿物中。在部分褐煤层中,锗可以富集成矿,通过研究发现,绝大部分锗与有机质形成牢固的化学结合,形成腐植酸络合物及锗有机化合物,极少部分锗可能存在于硅酸盐矿物晶格内。锗的提取须经过富集阶段,使其富集在精锗矿中,达到一定程度后经过氯化浸出—蒸馏—水解等过程进入溶液,采用沉淀法使锗与杂质分离。
关 键 词: 地球化学;赋存;综述;锗;提取冶金
Title: The distribution and extraction of germanium
Author: QI Fuhui,, ZENG Fangui, SUN Beilei, LI Meifen
Organization: Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology;Coal Geological Bureau of Inner Mongolia
Abstract: Germanium (Ge) is a scarce element, whose content is very low in the earth crust. Because of the different geologic environments, germanium unusually exhibits lithophile, siderophile, sulphophile and organophile behaviours. Germanium can be concentrated in silicate ore deposit, sulfide ore deposit and coal, and partly in porphyry and carbonate, therefore it has good industrial development future. In silicate ore deposit, Ge occurred in silicate in the form of isomorphism. In sulfide ore deposit, besides enter into the crystal lattice by isomorphically substituting for S, Ge also can form GeS2-3 and GeS4-4 to enter into sulphate. In some lignite beds, Ge can be enriched and mineralized. Ge has been mainly found to incorporate with organic matter to form humic acid complexes and Ge-organic compound. A few Ge may enter silicate crystal lattice. The extraction of Ge goes through the stage of enrichment to make Ge concentrate in fine germanium mine. Through chlorination leaching, distilling and hydrolysis process, Ge enters solution. It can be separated from impurities by precipitation method.
Key words: geochemistry; occurrence; review; germanium; extractive metallurgy
发表期数: 2009年11月第21期
引用格式: 齐福辉,曾凡桂,孙蓓蕾,等. 锗的赋存特征及提取技术[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2009,2(21):2224-2235.
 
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