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关于小麦胚乳细胞发育的研究

发表时间:2012-10-15  浏览量:2058  下载量:518
全部作者: 王忠,顾蕴洁,王慧慧,郑彦坤,陈永惠,张文虎,吴小美
作者单位: 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院
摘 要: 以扬麦5号为材料,精确标记颖果的发育天数,用光镜和电镜观察颖果中的输导系统、胚乳组织的结构和胚乳细胞的发育。结果如下:1) 胚乳表层细胞可分化出2种细胞。位于胚乳腔旁的表层细胞分化出胚乳传递细胞,其他部位的表层细胞分化出糊粉层细胞。2) 小麦胚乳细胞中有大小2种淀粉体,大淀粉体发生在颖果发育前期,小淀粉体发生在颖果发育中期(花后16 d左右)。淀粉体主要以出芽胞或缢缩等方式分裂。3) 胚乳细胞中的蛋白质在粗糙内质网上形成,通过高尔基体转移,积累在液泡中,形成蛋白体。小蛋白体合并可产生大的蛋白体。4) 小麦内胚乳细胞在发育过程中出现了核形变、核跨壁转移和核衰亡等现象,在核衰亡过程中淀粉体仍能生长。5) 颖果养分运输组织主要为主维管束、合点、珠心突起传递细胞、胚乳传递细胞、糊粉层细胞和胚乳输导细胞。由主维管束卸出的灌浆物质需经过质外体后才能进入胚乳组织。�
关 键 词: 作物生理学;小麦;胚乳;胚乳传递细胞;糊粉层细胞;淀粉体;蛋白体�
Title: Investigation of the wheat endosperm cell development
Author: WANG Zhong, GU Yunjie, WANG Huihui, ZHENG Yankun, CHEN Yonghui, ZHANG Wenhu, WU Xiaomei
Organization: College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University
Abstract: Wheat Yangmai-5 was used as the experimental material in this paper. Development days of wheat caryopsis were marked exactly. The structures of transport systems and endosperm tissues and the development of endosperm cells were observed under light and electron microscopes. The results are as follows: 1) Endosperm epidermal cells can be differentiated into two types of cells. Those beside endosperm cavity are differentiated into the endosperm transfer cells and others are differentiated into the aleurone cells. 2) Endosperm cells have two types of amyloplasts. Large amyloplasts are formed during the early development stage while small amyloplasts are formed during the middle development stage (at about 16 days after pollination). Amyloplasts can proliferate by budding-type division or constriction-type division, et al. 3) The protein in endosperm cells is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, transported by the Golgi apparatus, accumulates in vacuoles and becomes protein bodies. Small protein bodies can aggregate to form large protein bodies. 4) During the development of wheat inner endosperm cells, there are the occurrences of nucleus deformation, nucleus shift through the cell walls and nuclear degeneration. However, amyloplasts can still grow during the nuclear degeneration. 5) Caryopsis nutrient transport tissues mainly include the main vascular bundle, chalaza, nucellar projection transfer cells, endosperm transfer cells, aleurone cells and endosperm conducting cells. Nutrients unloaded by ventral vascular buddle must get through the apoplast before get into endosperm tissues.�
Key words: crop physiology; wheat; endosperm; endosperm transfer cells; aleurone cells; amyloplast; protein body
发表期数: 2012年10月第19期
引用格式: 王忠,顾蕴洁,王慧慧,等. 关于小麦胚乳细胞发育的研究[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2012,5(19):1815-1832.
 
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