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关于高粱胚乳细胞发育的研究

发表时间:2013-03-15  浏览量:721  下载量:228
全部作者: 王忠,顾蕴洁,王慧慧,郑彦坤,王玲玲,李栋梁
作者单位: 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院
摘 要: 研究以高粱KS-304品种为材料,主要采用光学显微镜、透射电镜(transmission electron microscopes,TEM)和扫描电镜(scanning electron microscopes,SEM)相结合的观察技术研究胚乳细胞的发育,取得如下创新结果:1) 发现内胚乳细胞(starchy endosperm cells,SEC)胞质中有1至数个产生淀粉体的发生中心。发生中心位于核膜旁,由发生中心产生许多双层被膜的质体管。淀粉在质体管基质中合成并形成淀粉粒,质体管因淀粉粒膨大离开发生中心而成为淀粉体。2) SEC在发育过程中发生核形变和核衰亡等现象,在核形变和衰亡过程中淀粉体仍能生长。3) 胚乳传递细胞(endosperm transfer cells,ETC)发育有明显的时空性,靠胚乳腔的胚乳表层细胞最先分化为传递细胞,然后依次向内胚乳方向分化,细胞壁加厚和壁内突发育的程度由表层传递细胞向内依次降低,内突的伸展方向一般从胚乳腔指向内胚乳。4) 发现微管和一种新的细胞器参与壁内突的形成,这种新型细胞器由管状小胞组成。5) 高粱胚乳外层只有一层糊粉层细胞(aleurone layer cells,ALC)。ALC中除含有糊粉粒和脂质体外,还含有少量的淀粉体。这些淀粉体是由原分布在核旁质体积累淀粉后发育而成。6) 胚旁细胞(embryo surrounding region cells,ESRC)在颖果发育早期尚能分裂生长,随着颖果的发育和胚的生长,ESRC依次消亡,所占胚乳的比例逐渐减少,最终ESRC部位全被胚占有。
关 键 词: 植物学;高粱;内胚乳细胞;胚乳传递细胞;糊粉层细胞;胚旁细胞;淀粉体
Title: Investigation on the sorghum endosperm cell development
Author: WANG Zhong, GU Yunjie, WANG Huihui, ZHENG Yankun, WANG Lingling, LI Dongliang
Organization: College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University
Abstract: Sorghum KS-304 is the experimental material used in this paper, and its endosperm cell development is observed mainly by the combination of light microscopes, transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The innovative results are as follows: 1) There is one or several occurrence centers of amyloplasts in cytoplasm of starchy endosperm cells (SEC). Occurrence center lies beside nuclear membrane. Occurrence center produces many plastid tubes of double layers of membranes. Starch is synthesized in plastid tube cytoplasm and forms starch granules. Then, the plastid tubes leave occurrence center due to starch granule’s enlargement and form amyloplasts. 2) SEC undergo nuclear deformation and degeneration during the development, while amyloplasts still grow during the nuclear deformation and degeneration. 3) Endosperm transfer cell (ETC) development has obvious characters of space and time. The endosperm epidermal cells closing to endosperm cavity are firstly differentiated into transfer cells, follwed by differentiating into the inner endosperm gradually. Cell wall thickening and wall ingrowths become less and less from epidermal transfer cells to the inner. The general extending direction of wall ingrowth is from endosperm cavity to inner endosperm. 4) Microtubules and a new organelle that consists of tubular small vesicles are involved in wall ingrowth formation. 5) Sorghum endosperm has only one layer of aleurone layer cells (ALC). ALC have a few amyloplasts besides aleurone granules and lipid bodies. These amyloplasts are formed from the stachy accumulation of the plastids originally around the nuclei. 6) The embryo surrounding region cells (ESRC) can still divide during the early stage of caryopsis. However, they degenerate gradually and their portion in the endosperm becomes less and less when caryopsis keeps developing and embryo keeps growing. Eventually, the embryo occupies the whole surrounding region.
Key words: botany; sorghum; starchy endosperm cells; endosperm transfer cells; aleurone layer cells; embryo surrounding region cell; amyloplast
发表期数: 2013年3月第5期
引用格式: 王忠,顾蕴洁,王慧慧,等. 关于高粱胚乳细胞发育的研究[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2013,6(5):476-497.
 
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