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冀西北坝上地区作物耗水肥特性与生产效果比较

发表时间:2017-08-15  浏览量:43  下载量:8
全部作者: 董云,李红,张立峰,姚兆磊
作者单位: 河北农业大学农学院
摘 要: 冀西北坝上地区位于我国华北长城沿线的农牧过渡地带,该区域高寒干旱、土壤瘠薄,农牧业生产相对落后。为明确冀西北坝上地区作物的耗水、耗肥特性与水分、养分生产效果,在草甸栗钙土田设置马铃薯、蚕豆、玉米、莜麦和甜菜等5种主栽作物的定位试验,对农田耗水组成、作物耗肥特征与生产效果进行比较研究。结果表明,5种主栽作物中,甜菜田生长季耗水量最大,马铃薯田最小。甜菜具有最高的水分与N、P、K干物质生产效率;甜菜与马铃薯具有较高的单位面积产值、耗水效益与成本效益;玉米和莜麦具有较高的生物产量、水分利用效率和N、P累积能力,然而其经济效益较差。在坝上地区,甜菜与马铃薯具有生产经济优势,玉米、莜麦和蚕豆则需要高附加值途径的开发。
关 键 词: 作物栽培学;耗水量;养分累积量;水分生产效益
Title: Comparison of water and fertilizer consumption characteristics and water economic benefit of crops in Bashang region in northwest Hebei
Author: DONG Yun, LI Hong, ZHANG Lifeng, YAO Zhaolei
Organization: College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University
Abstract: Bashang region of northwest Hebei province is located agro-pasturage ecotone in North China along the Great Wall. Climate of this region is cold and dry, and soil here is barren, for which reason the agriculture and husbandry here are relatively backward. In order to clarify the water and fertilizer consumption characteristics and water nutrient production effect in Bashang region of northwest Hebei, the positioning experiments of 5 main crops, including potato, beans, maize, oat and beet, were set in the meadow chestnut soil, and the farmland water consumption composition, crop fertilizer consumption characteristics and production effect were compared. The results showed that the water consumption of beet was the largest among the 5 tested crops in the growing season, and the water consumption of potato was the least. The water content and N, P, K dry matter product efficiency of beet were highest, and unit area value, water consumption and cost effectiveness of beet and potato were relatively higher. The biological yield, water use efficiency and N, P accumulation capacity of maize and oat were higher, but their economic benefits were poor. In the Bashang region, beet and potato have the advantage of producing economic, and maize, naked oats and broad beans need high value-added pathways.
Key words: crop cultivation; water consumption; nutrient accumulation; water production efficiency
发表期数: 2017年8月第15期
引用格式: 董云,李红,张立峰,等. 冀西北坝上地区作物耗水肥特性与生产效果比较[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2017,10(15):1707-1712.
 
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