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江西靖安九岭山国家级自然保护区夏秋季蜘蛛多样性及其形成机制的研究

发表时间:2021-09-30  浏览量:86  下载量:9
全部作者: 陈连水,袁凤辉,周谷春,饶军
作者单位: 东华理工大学化学生物与材料科学学院;赣南师范大学生命科学学院
摘 要: 2013~2015年8月底至9月初(夏秋季)对江西靖安九岭山国家级自然保护区的大韩山庄(A)、宝峰寺(B)、岭子上(C)、井坑里(D)、保护区(E)和三爪仑(F)蜘蛛资源及区系分布进行调查,共采得蜘蛛标本4 149份。经分类鉴定得知,它们分别隶属26科102属220种,其中有江西省新记录科1个,江西省新记录种20个,未确定种55个。蜘蛛群落组成分析表明,物种丰富度指数较高的依次为园蛛科、跳蛛科、球蛛科、狼蛛科、蟹蛛科、肖蛸科和盗蛛科等。蜘蛛物种多样性的比较分析表明,Marglef丰富度指数M大小依次为F>B>C>D>A>E,Berger-Parker优势度指数d大小依次为E>D>C>B>A>F,Smipson多样性指数D大小依次为E>D>B>A>C>F,McIntosh均匀度指数E大小依次为A>E=D=B=C>F. 并对蜘蛛群落结构和捕食功能多样性进行了分析。蜘蛛群落相似度的聚类分析表明,样地间相似度为A-B-C=D-E-F. 区域特色种多样性作用因子的统计分析表明,群落结构优势度、群落结构多样性、样地物种优势度、捕食功能优势度是江西靖安九岭山国家级自然保护区夏秋季蜘蛛区域特色种多样性形成的主要影响因素,而且各指数变量间普遍相关。即地穴型、地表型、结网型和游猎型蜘蛛多样性分别受地面异质性(地形地貌)、地表植物碎屑盖度、植被垂直结构和植被水平结构的影响,而猎物的可用性和丰富度对蜘蛛的密度和多样性会产生影响。总之,因中亚热带森林植被多样、台地地质景观典型及来自东或北方向的鄱阳湖、修河水气条件充沛,致使该区各样点蜘蛛多样性间呈现较强的关联性,而山势高低、植被类型、水气条件及人为干扰程度的不一样,却分别主导着这些样地蜘蛛群落结构与捕食功能多样性的形成与交流,故江西靖安九岭山国家级自然保护区夏秋季蜘蛛类型以区域特色种为主,伴有少量农林和人居区常见优势种类。
关 键 词: 动物学;九岭山;蜘蛛;多样性;群落结构;捕食功能
Title: Studies on summer and autumn spiders’ diversity and its formation mechanism in the Jiulingshan National Nature Reserve of Jing’ an county of Jiangxi province
Author: CHEN Lianshui, YUAN Fenghui, ZHOU Guchun, RAO Jun
Organization: College of Chemistry, Biology and Material Science, East China University of Technology; College of Life Science, Gannan Normal University
Abstract: This survey on spider resources and distribution in summer and autumn (end of August to early September, 2013-2015) of the Dahan Villa (A), the Baofeng Temple (B), the Upper Ridge (C), the Inside of Pit (D), the Nature Reserve (E) and the Sanzhualun Forest Park (F), all of which located in the Jiulingshan National Nature Reserve of Jingan county of Jiangxi provimce, had obtained 4 149 copies of spider specimens. It was discovered by classification and identification that they were attached to 26 families, 102 generas and 220 species, of which 1 family and 20 species were new records of Jiangxi province and 55 species were undetermined. A analysis of its spider community composition showed that the size of species richness of families was in turn Araneidae, Salticidae, Theridiidae, Lycosidae, Thomisidae, Tetragnathidae, Pisauridae, etc. A comparative analysis of spider species’ diversity showed that the size order of the Marglef richness index M was F>B>C>D>A>E, the Berger-Parker dominance index d was E>D>C>B>A>F, the Simpson diversity index D was E>D>B>A>C>F, and the McIntosh evenness index E was A>E=D=B=C>F. Then the spider community structure and predation function diversity were analyzed. A cluster analysis of the similarity of its spider community showed that the similarity between these sampling areas was A-B-C=D-E-F. A statistical analysis on action factors of endemic species’ diversity showed that the community structure dominance, the community structure diversity, the sampling areas’ species dominance, and the predation function dominance were four main factors affecting summer and autumn spiders’ diversity formation in those areas of the Jiulingshan National Nature Reserve of Jingan county of Jiangxi province, and there was a common relativity between these index variables. The diversities of spiders of crypt type, surface type, network type and vagabundae type were respectively affected by heterogeneity of ground surface (topography), plant debris cover, vegetation vertical structure and vegetation horizontal structure. Additionally, the availability and abundance of prey would have an impact on the density and diversity of spiders. In short, the diversiform middle tropical forest vegetation, a typical terrace mesa landscape and the abundant moisture in Poyang Lake and Xiuhe from their east or north resulted in the strong relevance in diversity of spiders in different sampling areas. Moreover, the difference in mountain level, vegetation type, water and gas conditions, and human disturbance degree between these sampling areas guided respectively the formation and exchange for spider community structure and predation function diversity. As a result, endemic spiders took an occupying proportion among all spider species in summer and autumn from the Jiulingshan National Nature Reserve of Jingan county of Jiangxi province, accompanied by a small amount of common dominant species in agricultural and residential areas as well.
Key words: zoology; the Jiulingshan; spider; diversity; community structure; predation function
发表期数: 2021年9月第3期
引用格式: 陈连水,袁凤辉,周谷春,等. 江西靖安九岭山国家级自然保护区夏秋季蜘蛛多样性及其形成机制的研究[J]. 中国科技论文在线精品论文,2021,14(3):324-338.
 
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